India’s Abundance of Natural Resources: Minerals, Soil, Water, and Forests

Images of Natural Resources in India

Natural resources are items that occur naturally in the environment without human intervention. These include air, water and soil. They provide essential services like drinking and agriculture.

India has a diversity of natural resources, especially mineral deposits. The country is rich in coal and oil. The country has also a wide range of forests. Forests are used to produce fire wood, paper, spices and drugs.


Soil is an integral part of the natural environment and it differs in its characteristics from place to place. It is formed as a result of breakdown of rocks under specific climatic conditions.

Major soil types in india

Alluvial soils form the most important type of soil in india and are deposited by the rivers. They are found in the northern plains and river valleys. This type of soil is light in color and can be used for cultivation of wheat, maize, sugarcane, oilseeds etc. This type of soil is deficient in humus and lime and contains less calcium carbonate and potassium. It can be classified into old alluvium or bangar and new alluvium or khadar.

Black soil is found mainly in the Deccan plateau. It is rich in potash, magnesium and iron but is deficient in humus and nitrogen and phosphorous. It is known as regur or cotton soil in india and it is suitable for growing cotton crops.


Natural resources are the untamed essences found in nature that make it possible for people to survive and thrive. The most common examples are air, water, and sunlight. They are classified as either renewable or non-renewable, depending on whether they can be reproduced naturally in the environment or require a series of geological developments to be created again.

Water is a critical resource for India, which is one of the world’s most water-stressed countries. As India’s population grows, demand for water will outpace supply unless policymakers take steps to manage its dwindling supplies.

From one of the world’s most complex and mightiest river systems to small ephemeral streams in mountainous regions, India’s water sources range from the rich Gangetic alluvium to hard-rock aquifers in the high country. In addition to its agricultural output, India’s energy sector uses large amounts of water. The water used to grow cotton alone would be enough to provide 85% of the nation’s population with 100 litres per day for a year.


Forests in India are a critical habitat for wildlife and help regulate the water cycle. They also provide timber, fuelwood, grass and fodder and are a source of medicines.

Non-merchantable forests are forests that are not harvested for commercial purposes but have a high ecological value. Examples include dry deciduous forests and mangroves.

Moist evergreen forests are found in the Western Ghats, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Eastern Himalayas. These forests are dominated by species such as rosewood, mahogany, aini and ebony.

Forests in India are a vital resource for local communities who live within and around them. They are also home to many wild animals, including tigers. As a carbon sink, they play a role in mitigating climate change. In addition, reforestation and agroforestry (where trees are planted along with crops) increase farmers’ incomes and help protect forests. The movement of the Chipko, a women’s forest protection movement in India, is one such effort.


Minerals are naturally-occurring inorganic, crystalline solids with a specific chemical composition and characteristic physical properties. They are the building blocks of rocks and are found in various combinations in different types of rock.

Mineral resources are essential for the economic development of any country. India is endowed with a vast number of minerals, including coal, iron ore, bauxite, mica, copper, gold and zinc.

Ferrous metallic minerals (minerals that contain iron) are a vital component of the metallurgical industry and are used to produce steel and other industrial metals. They also contribute to India’s emergence as an exporter of high-tech electronics and defense equipment.

Non-ferrous metallic minerals (minerals that do not contain iron) are used in a variety of industries, including construction and manufacturing. They are also important for energy, telecommunications and the manufacturing of high-tech electronic devices.

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