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The Round-tailed Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma modestum, inhabits desert grassland and desert shrubland habitats, in areas of sparse scrub vegetation and gravel to rocky soils, such as those found on bajada slopes, at the edges of washes, on desert flats, and in arid and semi-arid hills.  In elevational range extends from 210 to 2,200 m. The Round-tailed Horned Lizard is also found in oak habitats in parts of its range. When not on the surface it burrows or uses existing rodent burrows. The range extends from southeastern Arizona, New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, and northern Texas southward to San Luis Potosi, Mexico. It is very abundant at some locations. This animal was photographed in the Ladron Mountains of Central New Mexico.

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Seed dispersal seems to be the selective force driving the evolution of fleshy fruits that attract animals. Volitle chemical accumulate at high levels in fleshy fruits to signal the seed disperal species that the fruit is ready to be eaten. However, the ripening fruit produce these volatile chemicals not only attracts the seed dispersal agents but numerous insects. The availability of ripening fruits undoubtedly has consequences for the local community. Here is a prickly pear fruit covered with many different kinds of insects taking advantage of the available nutrition. Photographed in the Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona.

 

 

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The Little Grass Frog, Pseudacris ocularis, is the smallest North American frog. Its maximum size is 20 mm. It inhabits flooded grassy areas and may breed any time of the year, although the peak breeding seasons is in late spring. Little Grass Frogs occur in the south-eastern Coastal Plain from south-eastern Virginia to the southern tip of Florida, and inland to the Fall Line and west to Choctawhatchee Bay in the Florida Panhandle.  The species is common throughout much of its range. The Little Grass Frog's diet has been reported to contain springtails, hymenopterans (mainly ants and parasitic wasps), rove beetles, and homopterans. The arthropods eaten are most associated with the leaf litter. This male was found calling in a flooded roadside ditch in eastern North Carolina.

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Bedrock is exposed along this stream in the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona.